Hangeul step 1/ja

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Introduction

Hyunwoo and Mikyung - Steps 2, 3
Seokjin and Kyoung-eun: Steps 4, 5, 6
http://www.talktomeinkorean.com

ようこそ。 日本語の「ひらがな/かたかな」みたいに、「ハングル」は韓国語の特徴の文字を表す言葉です。24文字しかないので、(ローマ字より少ない!)基礎は1時間ぐらいに覚えることは出来ます。韓国語を正しく発音をするにはハングル (한글)を覚える必要があります。日本語より韓国語は発音が多く、カタカナ、またははローマ字で表すのはうまく出来ません。もっと詳しい説明ほしい方は romanization を参考してください。ここでは6ステップでハングルを覚えるためにレッスンを用意しています。このレッスンは「Korean Wiki Project」と TalktomeinKorean.com の共同プロジェクトです。 ハングルの音声録音するためにふさわしい声を探していた時に、彼らこのプロジェクトを進化するためにボランティアーとして手伝っていただきました。彼らの努力とサポートに、私たちは非常に感謝しています。

上級発音の役に立つステップ7は近いうちに仕上げる予定です。

なぜ韓国の文字を覚える?

カタカナで韓国語を勉強するのが十分だと思ている人もいますが、韓国語を上達するにはそれはどれほど足止めいなるのかをわからないのです。下にカタカナで韓国語を表すの弱点を説明します。


  • 日本語の発音は韓国語の発音とは異なる ハングルで日本語を覚えようとしたらおかしいでしょう?特に韓国語にない「ざ、ず、ぜ、ぞ」や「つ」や「ふ」などの発音は韓国語では表すこともできないですね。同じように、カタカナで韓国語を表そうとしたら日本語にない発音は表せないです。このため、日本語を覚えようとすると、日本語の文字を覚えた方がいいです。韓国語を覚えようとしたらハングルを覚えないと行けないのです。
  • カタカナで韓国語を書くのは誤解されやすい
    • プレーズブックなどのカタカナ化韓国語を使おうとしたら、発音は大はずれになります。例えば、「ハングル」という言葉もそのままカタカナのように発音したら通じない可能性が高いです。最後の「グル」の所は「글」の発音を表そうとしているけど、この発音は日本語にも、英語にもないです。カタカナを見て、「グル」は「구루」か「그르」か「글」などのどっちかを表しているのを判断できない為、 韓国語を話して会話したいと思ったら、文字を覚えて、「한글」として発音するしかないのです。
    • ローマ字で表すことも正しくできません。実は、韓国語をローマ字表記法はいくつかあります。。ただし、表記法によって、同じ言葉でも違う表示になります。例をいうと、オリンピック・フィギュアスケート選手「キム・ヨナ」「Kim Yuna」(김연아)は普通の表記法を使っていなくて、もっと英語の発音と似ているスペルを選びました。前の表記法通りに書いていると思われたら、「yu」は「ㅕ」ではなく「ㅠ」を表すので「ユナ」の発音になります。


For more reasons, see: Romanization#Problems.

Brief History

See full article at The Origin of Hangeul

King Sejong
A page from the Hunmin Jeong-eum Eonha

Hangeul was introduced under Sejong the Great and finished around 1444. Up until and even after that time, Chinese characters were used as the written language, limiting reading and writing to the royal and government elite. King Sejong wanted Korea to have its own script that could be easily learned by anyone -- even commoners. After its creation, Hangeul was said to be easy enough to learn that a wise man could finish it in the morning and a fool could finish it by night. For this reason there was opposition to Hangeul for a time by Korean aristocrats, believing only those of social superiority should have this special privilege.

Ever since Hangeul was first introduced, it has gone through many phases of refinement. Korean went through a large reformation during the Japanese colonization in the early 1900's, removing many of the now-archaic letters and changing several rules.

Hangeul is considered easy to learn by many people because most of the similar shaped letters have a similar sound as well, making it easy to see the relationship and making it easy to memorize.

Basics

Consonants

There are 14 basic consonants in Korean and five double consonants which are formed from the basic consonants ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, ㅅ, and ㅈ respectively.

Basic consonants Basic consonants.png
Double consonants Double consonants.png

Vowels

There are eight basic vowel sounds along with 13 other complex vowel sounds. These complex vowels are called diphthongs, which are combinations of no more than two vowels. Whereas multiple vowels are normally voiced in separate syllables, each vowel composing a diphthong is voiced together within one syllable. As you can also see just from looking, most diphthongs are combinations of two basic vowels.

All basic vowels are created by three types of strokes. The first stroke symbolizes Heaven and is a dot (•), though in modern Korean this dot is just a simple, short stroke. The next type of stroke symbolizes earth and is a horizontal line (ㅡ). The final stroke symbolizes man (ㅣ). These symbols are combined to create the Korean vowels, for example | plus • makes ㅏ.

Basic vowels Basic vowels.png
Complex vowels Complex vowels.png

Syllable Blocks

Korean words are written from left to right and words are formed by writing each syllable in a block-like shape. Each letter inside the block forms a sound. The word for 'person' is 사람, romanized as 'saram,' and consists of two syllables. The letters ㅅ + ㅏ make the syllable block of 사 ('sa'), while ㄹ + ㅏ + ㅁ make the next syllable 람 ('ram'). The picture below will show you a sound approximation of each of the Korean sounds contained in the word. Also note that written Korean doesn't actually draw boxes around the syllables, this is just for illustrative purposes.

사람.png

Korean syllables are organized into blocks of letters that have a beginning consonant, a middle vowel, and an optional final consonant. A syllable block is composed of a minimum of two letters, consisting of at least one consonant and one vowel. In our lesson plan, Steps 2, 3 and 4 will focus on just words with a consonant and one horizontal vowel, and words with a consonant and one vertical vowel (see below). Step 5 will introduce the final consonant concept and step 6 will show syllables that can consist of double vowels.

Syllable blocks1.png

Also note if you want to write only a vowel, it must be written with the consonant , which acts as a silent placeholder for the consonant position. Why? Think of the ying and the yang concept. If one wants to write the vowel ㅏ, they would have to write it as 아 with ㅇ being a silent placeholder for the consonant position. An easy way to remember this is to think of the ㅇ as a zero. More examples below:

Original vowel Written by itself

Writing

As already mentioned, Korean words are written from left-to-right and top-to-bottom in block-like forms. In the next few sections you will learn how to write each letter and its appropriate stroke order. While stroke order may not seem important at first, it is important when writing Korean naturally and helps others to be able to read your handwriting. The shapes and size of the letters can be stretched or compressed to fill in the block space and to make it evenly sized with other all other syllables. In the example below, you can see how the size and shape of the letter ㄱ changes to fill in this imaginary block (highlighted in sky blue).

Sentence block example.png


Now we are going to start learning some letters, which are called jamo. Please note that, in order to view these lessons in their entirety, you must have Adobe Flash Player installed. This will allow you to play all included audio files on the following pages. Don't worry, you more than likely have it installed on your computer already.

Next ja.png