ㄷ irregular verbs

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Many verbs/adjectives with a ㄷ 받침 are irregular: the ㄷ changes to ㄹ when followed by a vowel.

Note that many verbs/adjectives with a ㄷ 받침 are regular (the ㄷ does not change). There is no specific rule to know whether one is irregular or not; instead you must memorize which are irregular and which ones aren't.

Explanation

  • For irregular ㄷ verbs, no change is made to the 받침 if it is followed by a consonant.
For example: 듣다 → 듣습니다
  • For irregular ㄷ verbs, the ㄷ 받침 changes to a ㄹ when followed by a vowel.
For example: 듣다 → 들어요
  • Steps for conjugating irregular ㄷ verbs which are followed by a vowel:
1. Replace ㄷ 받침 with ㄹ
2. Follow the same conjugation rules for patterns with a 받침.
For example: 걷다 + A/V + (으)니까 you would use 으 since it has a 받침.
So 걷다 becomes 걸으니까


Note that ㄹ irregular verbs, verbs with a ㄹ 받침 are irregular in a different way. (This can be somewhat confusing if you mix them up with ㄷ irregular verbs.)

Irregular Verbs

Conjugation Examples for Irregular Verbs
Verb/Adj A/V + (스)ㅂ니다 A/V + 아 / 어 / 여 + 요 A/V + 았 / 었 + 어요 A/V + (으)ㄹ 거예요 A/V + (으)니까 A/V + (으)면 V + (으)세요
걷다 (to walk) 걷습니다 걸어요 걸었어요 걸을 거예요 걸으니까 걸으면 걸으세요
깨닫다 (to perceive, to realize) 깨닫습니다 깨달아요 깨달았어요 깨달을 거예요 깨달으니까 깨달으면 깨달으세요
듣다 (to listen) 듣습니다 들어요 들었어요 들을 거예요 들으니까 들으면 들으세요
묻다 (to ask) 묻습니다 물어요 물었어요 물을 거예요 물으니까 물으면 물으세요
싣다 (to load) 싣습니다 실어요 실었어요 실을 거예요 실으니까 실으면 실으세요


Regular Verbs

These verbs are not affected by the rules of irregular verbs and are conjugated normally.

Conjugation Examples for Regular Verbs
Verb/Adj A/V + (스)ㅂ니다 A/V + 아 / 어 / 여 + 요 A/V + 았 / 었 + 어요 A/V + (으)ㄹ 거예요 A/V + (으)니까 A/V + (으)면 V + (으)세요
믿다(to trust, believe) 믿습니다 믿어요 믿었어요 믿을 거예요 믿으니까 믿으면 믿으세요
닫다(to close) 닫습니다 닫아요 닫았어요 닫을 거예요 닫으니까 닫으면 닫으세요
받다(to receive) 받습니다 받아요 받았어요 받을 거예요 받으니까 받으면 받으세요
얻다(to receive) 얻습니다 얻어요 얻었어요 얻을 거예요 얻으니까 얻으면 얻으세요
묻다(to bury) 묻습니다 묻어요 묻었어요 묻을 거예요 묻으니까 묻으면 묻으세요
쏟다(to pour) 쏟습니다 쏟아요 쏟았어요 쏟을 거예요 쏟으니까 쏟으면 쏟으세요

?:

  • 내닫다(to run away suddenly)
  • 내리닫다 (run down, leap down)