경상 dialect

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Because not everyone lives in 서울.
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Location

This is used in the 경상 region of South Korea. It is located in the South east of Korea.

In Korean dramas, when remaking Japanese dramas, Busan version of 경상 dialect is often used in place of the Japanese Osaka Dialect for corresponding characters.

Generational Gap

The younger generation is perfectly capable of speaking and understand the 서울 dialect. However, they like a lot of the dialect and will use it to joke around among friends. If you don't know the dialect, you're an outsider.

The older generation can't speak the 서울 dialect if their life depended on it. Even though my wife is from that area, and I've spent several years among them, I still can't understand but one or two of the things they say.

The middle-aged people try their best, but they are really not good with the 서울 dialect. If you speak with the 서울 dialect they clam up because it feels like you are being formal with them, and they can't keep up.

Inflection

The principle characteristic of the 경상 dialect is its inflection compared to 서울말. To a 서울 dialect person, it sounds like they are throwing a tantrum or chewing someone out. To a 경상 person, they are being passionate, while 서울 is cold and too business-like.

The pattern is generally a large spike, with people who have a stronger version, such as outside of Busan, having a larger spike. This spike includes a spike in pitch (up) and volume (louder) specifically to emphasize words, or the the main point of the sentence. The spike is usually added to the end of the sentence, and dips in the middle. This would look like a sharp mountain peak with an elevator pitch and short rounded dips. Emotion is also emphasized largely with more fricatives, which may accompany the raise in pitch and volume (such as when angry or really upset) or coming down from the peak (when disappointed, defeated or to emphasize a disbelief situation.).

Mannerisms

경상 people generally like to touch each other more than other areas. Don't be surprised if someone touches your arm or your head.

They are generally more devoted to their friends than other areas. Think of them all as 깡페 and it will make more sense: I watch your back, you watch mine, and we're all better off. Trust is very important, as well as keeping promises.

Also, showing your emotions to your friends and family is not only acceptable, but required. It's ok to be angry with each other as long as you let it go eventually. They tend not to bear grudges or take offense as easily as other areas.

They really, really don't like the 졸라 attitude, which tends to be more egocentric and family-focused, and much more reserved and composed.

Outside of Busan, they tend to be viewed by Seoul people as "backwater" but conversely, they see Jeolla people as the true "country people" and have a long-standing rivalry with Jeolla. Conversely, most 경상 people don't care about Seoul people's image at all, except viewing them as much more "cold" rather than passionate.

Endings

Using the -요 ending as an adult male makes you sound like a woman, or someone from Seoul. Use the -오 form and earn instant respect.

You'll hear a lot of so-called archaic endings (-게, -거라, etc...). Even the younger generation uses it from time to time.

You don't hear -ㅂ니다 very much, because men just use -오 so it's not needed.

Abbreviations

  • 기: 것이, 게. Example: 할기다. (할것이다.)
  • 카: -고하-. Example: 뭐라카노? (뭐라고 하노?)

Words

  • 무우다: 먹다

Pronunciation

  • Lacks ㅟ and ㅚ. Pronounced as ㅣ and ㅔ respectively. Generally, diphthongs don't sound like diphthongs at all.
  • Little difference between ㅡ and ㅓ, and ㅐ and ㅔ
    • 언어 and 은어 → [어너]
  • Lacks some double consonants, like ㅆ
    • 쌌다 → [삳다]
    • 쌀 → [살]
  • Diphthongs commonly lose the 'w' sound
    • 사과 → [사가]
  • Sometimes ㅏ, ㅓ, ㅗ, ㅡ become either ㅓ or ㅣ when there's vowel assimilation
    • 막히다 → [매키다]
    • 먹이다 → 매기다
    • 옮기다 → 앵기다
    • 죽이다 → 지기다
  • Sometimes a ㄱ, ㅋ, or ㄲ at the beginning of a word becomes ㅈ, ㅊ, or ㅉ (old people, may be impediment.)
    • 김치 → [짐치]
    • 기름 → [지름]
  • Sometimes ㄱ in the middle of the word disappears or becomes 우.
    • 목욕 → 모욕.
    • 먹었다 → 무웄다.
  • Sometimes a beginning 히 becomes a 시 (For old people, may be speech impediment.)
    • 힘 → [심]
  • Sometimes a beginning consonant becomes a double
    • 과자 → [까자]
  • Sometimes ㅔ becomes ㅣ
    • 했는데 → 했는디

Grammar

The 경상 dialect maintains a trace of Middle Korean: the grammar of the dialect distinguishes between a yes-no question and a wh-question, while Standard Modern Korean does not. With an informal speech level, for example, yes-no questions end with "-a (아)" and wh-questions end with "-o (오)" in the 경상 dialect, whereas in standard speech both types of questions end in either "이" or "어" without a difference between the types of questions. For example:

  • "밥 묵읏나?" as opposed to "밥 먹었니?" or "밥 먹었어?" — "Did you eat?"
  • "머 하노?" as opposed to "뭐 하니?" or "뭐 해?" — "What are you doing?"

Notice that the first question can be answered with a yes or no, while the latter question is to be answered otherwise.

This phenomenon can also be observed in tag questions, which are answered with a yes or no.

  • "업제 그쟈?" as opposed to "없지, 그렇지?" — "It isn't there, is it?"
General 경상 Dialect Standard Korean English
대학교 어디 갔노? 대학교 어디 갔어? Where did you go to college?
자 좀 이쁘다 쟤 좀 이쁘다 She is pretty
얼마 전에 폰 샀는데 맛 갔다 얼마 전에 폰 샀는데 고장났어 I bought a phone recently and it broke
니캉 내캉 너랑 니랑 You and me
(부산): 와 그라노?

(대구): 니 와카노?

왜 그래? What's wrong?
(부산): 하모 니 어디 갈끼고?

(대구): 카모 니 어디 갈낀데?

그러면 너 어디 갈 거야? So, where are you going?
(부산): 니 머라 해산노?

(대구): 니 머라 싸노?

너 뭐라고 했어? What did you say?

Noun modifiers

  • Instead of -이 after a noun, it becomes -이가
    • 가심이가 아푸다
  • Instead of -을/-를, it becomes 로
    • 물로 묵고
  • Instead of -한테, it becomes -인대
    • 이거 내인대 잇던 거 아이가?
  • Instead of -와/-과, it becomes -캉
    • 내캉 가치 가자.

Verbs

  • Sometimes verbs add 어 instead of 아 for glue
    • 받아 → [받어]
  • Sometimes the glue changes
    • 비벼 → 비비
    • 줘 → 도
      • 이리 줘 → [이리 도]
  • Sometimes the bottom consonant isn't removed
    • 더워 → 덥어
    • 나아 → 낫아
  • Some verbs are very different
    • 먹다 → 묵다
      • 먹으면 → 무우면
      • 먹어서 → 무우서

Verb Endings

Statements

  • -ㅁ니더/-심니더 (합쇼체)
  • -내 (하게체)
  • -ㄴ다/-넌다 (해라체)
  • Verbs adding 요 for middle form add 얘 instead
    • 여기 있어요 → 여기 잇어얘
    • 여기 있는데요 → 여기 잇넌대얘

Questions

  • -ㅁ니꺼/-심니꺼 (합쇼체)
  • -넌교/-(으)ㄴ교 (합쇼체)
  • -넌가/-(으)ㄴ가 (하게체)
  • -나 (해라체)

Questions with where, why, etc. end with:

  • -넌고/-(으)ㄴ고 (하게체)
    • 어대 가넌고?
    • 이건 누구 책이고?
  • -노 (해라체)

Questions with just yes or no answers, end with:

  • -넌가/-(으)ㄴ가 (하게체)
    • 집애 가넌가?
    • 이건 니 책이가?
  • -나 (해라체)

Other

  • (합쇼체) (으)ㅂ시다 → -(으)입시더
  • 못V can change to [몬]V
    • 못 하다 → 몬 하다
    • 못 오다 → 몬 오다
  • The quote form can change
    • 뭐라고요? → 머라꼬예?
    • 뭐라고 했냐? → 머라 캣노?
  • A verb description a noun can change (-는 → -넌) (-았-/-었- → -앗-/-엇-)
    • 밥을 먹은 사람 → 밥 무웃넌 사람

Vocabulary

  • Sometimes where you see a ㅂ or ㅅ where there isn't one in the standard dialect, it's because it's closer to older Korean (ㅸ, ㅿ)
  • Sometimes where you see a ㅗ where there's a ㅏ in the standard dialect, it's because it's closer to older Korean (ㆍ)
General 경상 Dialect Standard Korean English
 ??  ??  ??
General 경상도
Dialect Standard English
정구지 부추 Korean leek, Chinese chive
능금 사과 apple
찌짐/지짐이 Korean pan fried food
가시개 가위 scissors
새그럽다 시다 sour
정지 부엌 kitchen
따시다 따뜻하다 warm
찹다 차갑다 cold
디다 힘들다/지치다 exhausted
올리다 토하다 vomit
뽀꿈쥐다 꽉 잡다 grab tight
데피다 데우다 heat up
봉다리 봉지 plastic bag
어제 아래 그저께 the day before yesterday
문때다 문지르다 rub off
억수로 매우 많이 very much
가시나
머시마
아이 kid
아지매 아줌마, 고모, 이모
아재 삼촌 / 아저씨 Uncle (
어무이 어머니 Mother
아부지 아버지 Father
무시
  • 반피 - 바보
  • 단디하다 - 조심하다
  • 조포 - 두부
  • 무시 - 무
  • 엿기름 - 엿질금
  • 위 - 참외
  • 찌짐 - 부침개
  • 정구지 - 부추
  • 오그락지 - 무말랭이
  • 돌개 - 도라지
  • 지러기, 지래기 - 겉절이
  • 콩지름 - 콩나물
  • 달내이 - 달래
  • 날세이 - 냉이
  • 짐치 - 김치
  • 꼬장 - 고추장
  • 이밥 - 쌀밥
  • 무시이퍼리 - 무청
  • 빌박, 비림박, 비릴박 - 벽
  • 정낭 - 화장실
  • 정이 - 부엌
  • 돌가리 - 시멘트
  • 다황 - 성냥
  • 수낏대, 수꿋대, 수꿋대기 - 수수깡
  • 부석 - 아궁이
  • 따가리 - 뚜껑
  • 삽작 - 대문
  • 동테 - 굴렁쇠
  • 팽댕이 - 팽이
  • 두디 - 포대기
  • 방구 - 바위
  • 바꾸 - 바퀴
  • 가시개 - 가위
  • 바쁘재,보재기 - 보자기
  • 빼다지 - 서랍
  • 두지 - 뒤주
  • 치 - 체
  • 엉가-언니
  • 찌리부리하세-찝찔하게
  • 낭캐-나무
  • 조막띠-주먹
  • 날개비-날개
  • 빵개이-소꿉놀이
  • 멍다구-멍
  • 조무래기-꼬마
  • 모가치-몫
  • 입살개-고자질을 잘하는 사람
  • 오떄기-요
  • 꼬실매-곱슬머리
  • 검거추룸하다-키가 크고 눈매가 시원하다
  • 새깔깔이-새것
  • 떨이미-떨이
  • 찍자-시비
  • 꺼꾸-술래
  • 배찌-괜히
  • 골띠기-꼴뚜기
  • 덱끼리-최고
  • 저모레-글피
  • 가죽다-가깝다
  • 까재미-가자미
  • 이지다-예쁘다
  • 카바치다-덮다라는 의미
  • 짜다라-별로 그다리..란 의미
  • 새까리삐다-수두룩 많다 빼곡히많다라는의미
  • 소태-짜다
  • 뻐떡하면-걸핏하면
  • 주진부리-걸핏하면
  • 리우리-피래미
  • 끌뜩그리지마라-사물을 힐긋힐긋보는행위
  • 영판이다-똑같다
  • 부엌 - 정재
  • 간장 - 지렁
  • 고명 - 끼미
  • 삽 - 수금포
  • 가위 - 가시게
  • 벽 - 비름빡
  • 서랍 - 빼닫이(빼다지)
  • 바지 - 주봉
  • 종이 - 조
  • 기름 - 지름


경상북도

Vocabulary specific to areas in North Gyeongsang province.

경상북도
경상북도 Standard Korean English Comment

경상남도

Vocabulary specific to areas in South Gyeongsang province.

경상남도
경상남도 Standard Korean English Comment
끌배이 거지 A beggar, a bum, a lowlife 끌배이 is used in Busan only, other areas in Gyeongsang province would say 걸배이


Phrases

경상 Dialect Standard Korean English
 ??  ??  ??
경상 Dialect Standard English
밥 뭇나?/밥 먹었나? 밥 먹었어? Have you eaten?
밥 무라 밥 먹어. Come and eat.
와이라노/와이카노 왜 그래? What's wrong?
맞나? 정말? Really?
글라? 그래? Really?
뭐라캐싼노? 뭐라구?/뭐라고 얘기하고 있는거야? What are you talking about?
뭐라고 씨부리쌌노! 너 지금 무슨말을 하고있는 거야! What the hell are you talking about?
뭐고?/뭐꼬? 뭐야? What is it?
가가가가? 걔가 그사람이야? Is he the guy?
엔가이 좀 해라 그만 좀 해. Stop it. That's enough.
디질래? 죽을래? Do you wanna die or something?
죽고싶나 ? 죽고 싶어? Do you wanna die or something?
뿌사뿔라 부셔버릴거야. I'll break it.
아 쫌!! 아 그만좀 해. 너 왜자꾸 그러는거니? That's enough. What's wrong with you?
아니다안캤나 아니라고 하지 않았니? I said no.
이리온나. 이리와. Come here.

See also

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