Adverbs

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In general, many adverbs, called 부사 in Korean, are created by attaching 게 to to the end of an adjective stem (A + 게). However, sometimes there is a more natural form, especially adverbs ending with the syllable 히 or (으)로. Also since Korean and English are quite different languages, some of the adverbs translated literally into English can sound awkward, for example '맛있게 먹다' means eat deliciously.

Common Adverbs Formed with Adjective + 게

Also see: A + 게

Adverbs formed using adjective + 게
Adjective (descriptive verb) Meaning Adverb form Meaning
가볍다 to be light 가볍게 lightly
나쁘게 to be bad 나쁘게 badly
늦다 to be late 늦게 late (adv)
맛있다 to be delicious 맛있게 deliciously
무례하다 to be rude 무례하게 rudely
바쁘다 to be busy 바쁘게 busily
밝다 to be bright 밝게 brightly
싸다 to be cheap 싸게 cheaply
아름답다 to be beautiful 아름답게 beautifully
안전하다 to be safe 안전하게 safely
어렵다 to be difficult 어렵게 difficultly
이쁘다 to be pretty 이쁘게 prettily
용기 있다 to have courage 용기있게 bravely, courageously
위험하다 to be dangerous 위험하게 dangerously
자연스럽다 to be natural 가연스럽게 naturally
자유롭다 to be free 자유롭게 freely
재미있다 to be fun 재미있게
조용하다 to be quiet 조용하게 quietly
즐겁다 to be pleasant 즐겁게 pleasantly
크다 to be large 크게 largely
편리하다 to be convenient 편리하게 conveniently
편하다 to be comfortable 편하게 comfortably
행복하다 to be happy 행복하게 Happily

Common Adverbs Ending with 히

Adjectives Ending with 히
Adverb Meaning Derived from Meaning
대단히 greatly, highly, extremely 대단하다 to be great, incredible
분명히 definitely, clearly, certainly 분명하다 to be clear
솔직히 honestly, frankly 솔직하다 to be frank, honest, open
순순히 passively, obediently 순순하다 to be passive, obedient
열심히 zealously, hard (i.e. work hard)
완전히 completely, fully, perfectly 완전하다 to be complete, full, perfect
우연히 on accident, by chance 우연하다 to be accidental, coincidental
자세히 in detail 자세하다 to be detailed
천천히 slowly N/A
특히 especially, particularly 특별하다 to be special
확실히 certainly, for sure, for certain, definitely 확실하다 to be certain, sure

Korean seldom use "천천한" so don't regard it as mechanical thing.

Some words originated from Chinese Character, like English word with Latin or Greek dervation. That's why you may have some difficulty in finding relation between "특히" & "특별한"

There's some applications of "특". "특식" - special food "특실" - special room "특차" - specially selected and uncountable applications because Chinese charcter has its own meaning and various combinations are possible.

Common Adverbs Ending with (으)로

These are often formed with nouns, sometimes in conjunction with 적 attached to the noun as well.

Adjectives Ending with (으)로
Noun or derivative Meaning Adverb Meaning
일반 general 일반적으로 generally
자동 automatic 자동으로 automatically
공식 공식적으로 formally, officially
비공식 비공식적으로 informally, unofficially
협동 협동적으로 cooperatively
주기 주기적으로 regularly
장기 장기적으로 in the long term
단기 단기적으로 in the short term
상식 상식적으로 using common sense, through common sense
사적 personal 사적으로 personally
적극 적극적으로 enthusiastically, actively, aggressively
획기 획기적으로 innovatively
drama 극적으로 dramatically
기적 miracle 기적적으로 miraculously
전적 전적으로 completely, totally, entirely
상대 relativity 상대적으로 relatively
잠정 잠정적으로 tentatively
물리 physics 물리적으로 physically
심리 psychology 심리적으로 psychologically
질적 qualitative 질적으로 qualitatively
고질 고질적으로 chronically
기본 fundamental 기본적으로 fundamentally
본능 instinct 본능적으로 instinctively
수동 manual 수동으로 manually
의도 intention 의도적으로 intentionally, on purpose
억지 억지로 by force, forcibly, against one's will
구체적 detailed 구체적으로 in detail

Other Adverbs

  • 직접 - in person
  • 없이 - without
    • 틀림 없이 - Certainly, sure, definitely, no matter what. Literally means 'without error' or 'without a mistake.'
  • 빨리 - quickly 빠른 is quick, and 빨리 is just similar changing.
  • 많이 - many
  • 일찍 - early
  • 같이 - with, together. 같은 means same. If people has common mind, they could be together.

That's why Korean usually say "우리 아빠" (our dad) instead of "내 아빠" (my dad). Korean has more concern about concept of community, though it is becoming more influenced by western style individualism.

  • 따로 - separately. It comes from 다른 (different).
  • 깊이 - deeply. 깊은 is adjective/modifier.
  • 갑자기 - suddenly. 갑작스런 is adjective.
  • 꼭 - for sure
  • 반드시 - at all cost, no matter what
  • 보통 - usually
  • 전혀 - never
  • 만날 - every day. More often pronounced and used as 맨날.
  • 자주 - often, frequently.
  • 자꾸 - continuously often; 자꾸 is something to do with obsession.
    • "자꾸 니 생각이나" (I can't stop thinking about you)
  • 가끔 - sometimes, occasionally, once in a while.
  • 일부러 - on purpose, deliberately
  • 함부로 - carelessly, mindlessly

See also