았/었 + 다
Adjective/Verb + 았 / 었 + 어요 : This pattern is used for past tense. Note that the ending 어요 can be substituted with a different sentence ending or clause ending, such as 어, 습니다, 죠?, 으니까, etc. But there must be some ending; a word may not end with 았/었.
With adverbs such as 매일, 자주, 항상, etc, the sentence means 'past habit or repetition' rather than 'completion'.
- Take the 다 off the verb.
- If the vowel of the last syllable is either ㅗ or ㅏ, add 아.
- One exception: if the last syllable is 하, replace it with 해 instead of adding 아.
- If the vowel of the last syllable is not ㅗ or ㅏ, add 어.
- Contract everywhere possible. The last syllable shouldn't have a 받침 at this stage.
- Finally, add a ㅆ to the last syllable and then add 다 back onto the end.
If you follow this, you will have a verb that is ready to be conjugated into different formality levels, inquisitive or declarative, etc. Please note: if you want to indicate obligation, you must change the original verb to indicate obligation BEFORE changing it to the past tense. After changing it to the past tense after indicating obligation, then you conjugate into formality levels. For example, if I want to change "to go" to its past tense inquisitive formal obligatory form, you would first change "to go" to indicate obligation (가다 → 가야 하다), then change it to past tense (가야 하다 → 가야 했다), then finally change it to it's inquisitive formal form (가야 했다 → 가야 했습니까). So you would end up with 가야 했습니까. This is the word ready to be used in a sentence. An example of this word in a sentence is, "당신은 가야 했습니까?". In English this would mean "did you have to go?".
- 막다 (To stop up) → 막았다
- 먹다 (To eat) → 먹었다
- 가다 (To go) → 갔다
- 오다 (To come) → 왔다
- 주다 (To give) → 줬다
- 마시다 (To drink) → 마셨다
- 하다 (To do) → 했다
- 사랑하다 (To love) → 사랑했다
|어제 친구와 영화를 봤어요.||I saw a movie with my friend yesterday.||Polite informal form|
|강아지와 산책을 했어요.||I took a walk with my dog.||Polite informal form|
|점심 먹었어요?||Did you have lunch?||Polite informal form|
|차를 샀어요.||I bought a car.||Polite informal form|
|친구가 우리 집에 놀러 왔어.||My friend came over to my place.||Low form|
|동생은 학교에 갔습니다.||My younger brother went to school.||Formal form|
|오늘 아침에 늦게 일어났어.||I got up late this morning.||Low form|
|지하철 탔어요? 버스 탔어요?||Did you get on the subway or bus?||Polite informal form|
|어제 밤에 철수와 맥주를 마셨어요.||I drank beer with Chul-Su last night.||Polite informal form|
|나는 자주 도서관에 갔어요.||I often went to the library.||Polite informal form|
- Special pronunciation rule?
- Related topic or grammar