The 받침 is the final consonant(or consonant cluster) at the end of a Korean syllable. The 받침 is written in the bottom/final position. Conjugation rules will often depend on if there is a 받침 or not. The consonant in the 받침 position is said to be in the "final position."
The jamo (units that make up the Hangul alphabet) sound may also differ from it's original sound if not followed by a vowel.
- Todo: insert chart with different sounds for 받침
Pronunciation: Consonant Followed By a Vowel
if a consonant in the final position followed by a vowel, the sound shifts over.
Pronunciation: Consonant Not Followed By a Vowel
If a consonant in the final position and it is not followed by a vowel, meaning it is the last syllable of the word or followed by another consonant, then it may have a different pronunciation. Notice from the table below that many characters share the same sound when in the 받침 position.
|ㄱ,ㄲ,ㅋ||/k/||The /k/ sound is cut short.||먹다
|ㅂ,ㅍ||/p/||The /p/ sound is cut short.||밥
|ㄹ||/l/ sound||If ㄹ is followed by a vowel it is a /r/ sound||말
|ㅇ||/ŋ/ sound||Normally ㅇ acts as a placeholder for a consonant and makes no sound, only in the final position does it make a sound.||강
|ㄷ, ㄸ,ㅈ,ㅅ,ㅆ,ㅌ,ㅊ||/t/ sound||옷
Note: ㅃ and ㅉ can't appear in the final position.
When certain consonant sounds meet each other, there are consonant assimilation rules that modify the standard pronunciation. For a complete set of rules, see the section.
|Word||Actual Pronunciation||Consonant Assimilation Rule|
|row 1, cell 1||row 1, cell 2||row 1, cell 3|
|row 2, cell 1||row 2, cell 2||row 2, cell 3|
It is possible to have two different consonants in the final syllable position. If the next syllable starts with a vowel, the sound in the second 받침 position will shift to the next syllable unless it is an ㅎ, in which case the sound is simply ignored.
- table original form, how it is pronounced
얽어 → 일거
없어 → 업서
앉아 → 안자
짧아 → 짤바
싫어 → 실어 → 시러
괜찮아 → 괜찬아 →괜차나
However if it is followed by a consonant in the next syllable over, there is no specific rule as to which sound to pronounce; you must memorize the words individually. The second consonant in the 받침 can also affect the next syllable if one of the consonant assimilation rules applies. See the picture example.
Also add: 잃다,닳다, 귀찮아, 끊다, 끓다 젊다, 읽히다 개미핥기,수박 겉 핥기
- <TODO: insert table> List of words where the first consonant gets pronounced
ㄵ,ㄶ, ㄳ, ㄼ, ㅀ,
pattern with the specific 받침? ㄺ,ㄻ, ㄺ,ㄿ,
- <TODO: insert table> List of words where the second consonant gets pronounced
Please note the tensed consonants(ㅃ, ㅉ, ㄸ, ㄲ, ㅆ,) can appear in the 받침 position, but this doesn't make it a double 받침 since it is still one character and not two separate characters.