In general, many adverbs, called 부사 in Korean, are created by attaching 게 to to the end of an adjective stem (A + 게). However, sometimes there is a more natural form, especially adverbs ending with the syllable 히 or (으)로. Also since Korean and English are quite different languages, some of the adverbs translated literally into English can sound awkward, for example '맛있게 먹다' means eat deliciously.
Common Adverbs Formed with Adjective + 게
Also see: A + 게
|Adjective (descriptive verb)||Meaning||Adverb form||Meaning|
|가볍다||to be light||가볍게||lightly|
|나쁘게||to be bad||나쁘게||badly|
|늦다||to be late||늦게||late (adv)|
|맛있다||to be delicious||맛있게||deliciously|
|무례하다||to be rude||무례하게||rudely|
|바쁘다||to be busy||바쁘게||busily|
|밝다||to be bright||밝게||brightly|
|싸다||to be cheap||싸게||cheaply|
|아름답다||to be beautiful||아름답게||beautifully|
|안전하다||to be safe||안전하게||safely|
|어렵다||to be difficult||어렵게||difficultly|
|이쁘다||to be pretty||이쁘게||prettily|
|용기 있다||to have courage||용기있게||bravely, courageously|
|위험하다||to be dangerous||위험하게||dangerously|
|자연스럽다||to be natural||가연스럽게||naturally|
|자유롭다||to be free||자유롭게||freely|
|재미있다||to be fun||재미있게|
|조용하다||to be quiet||조용하게||quietly|
|즐겁다||to be pleasant||즐겁게||pleasantly|
|크다||to be large||크게||largely|
|편리하다||to be convenient||편리하게||conveniently|
|편하다||to be comfortable||편하게||comfortably|
|행복하다||to be happy||행복하게||Happily|
Common Adverbs Ending with 히
|대단히||greatly, highly, extremely||대단하다||to be great, incredible|
|분명히||definitely, clearly, certainly||분명하다||to be clear|
|솔직히||honestly, frankly||솔직하다||to be frank, honest, open|
|순순히||passively, obediently||순순하다||to be passive, obedient|
|열심히||zealously, hard (i.e. work hard)|
|완전히||completely, fully, perfectly||완전하다||to be complete, full, perfect|
|우연히||on accident, by chance||우연하다||to be accidental, coincidental|
|자세히||in detail||자세하다||to be detailed|
|특히||especially, particularly||특별하다||to be special|
|확실히||certainly, for sure, for certain, definitely||확실하다||to be certain, sure|
Korean seldom use "천천한" so don't regard it as mechanical thing.
Some words originated from Chinese Character, like English word with Latin or Greek dervation. That's why you may have some difficulty in finding relation between "특히" & "특별한"
There's some applications of "특". "특식" - special food "특실" - special room "특차" - specially selected and uncountable applications because Chinese charcter has its own meaning and various combinations are possible.
Common Adverbs Ending with (으)로
These are often formed with nouns, sometimes in conjunction with 적 attached to the noun as well.
|Noun or derivative||Meaning||Adverb||Meaning|
|장기||장기적으로||in the long term|
|단기||단기적으로||in the short term|
|상식||상식적으로||using common sense, through common sense|
|적극||적극적으로||enthusiastically, actively, aggressively|
|전적||전적으로||completely, totally, entirely|
|의도||intention||의도적으로||intentionally, on purpose|
|억지||억지로||by force, forcibly, against one's will|
- 직접 - in person
- 없이 - without
- 틀림 없이 - literally 'without error' or 'without a mistake' => Certainly, sure, definitely, no matter what
- 빨리 - quickly 빠른 is quick, and 빨리 is just similar changing.
- 일찍 - early
- 같이 - with, together 같은 means same.
If people has common mind, they could be together. That's why Korean usullay say "우리 아빠 our dad" instead of "내 아빠 my dad." Korean has more concern about concept of community, though it is changing into westernized style like invidualism.
- 따로 - separately It comes from 다른 (different) If you have different or trecherous mind where you belong to, they will separate you.
- 깊이 - deeply 깊은 is adj
- 갑자기 - suddenly 갑작스런 is adj
- 꼭 - for sure
- 반드시 - at all cost, no matter what
- 보통 - usually
- 전혀 - never
- 만날 - every day (commonly written/spoken 맨날)
- 자주 - more than often; 자주 is more repetitive.
- 자꾸 - continously often; 자꾸 is something to do with obsession. "자꾸 니 생각이나" means I can't stop thinking about you.
- 가끔 - less than sometimes; 가끔 means less repetive.
- 일부러 - on purpose, deliberately
- 함부로 - carelessly, mindlessly