Difference between revisions of "Causative form"

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A causative form, in linguistics, (a) is an expression of an agent causing or forcing a patient to perform an action or to be in a certain condition--salient cause, (b) is an expression of a patient involves in a non-volitional event that registers the changes of its state--salient effect, (c) is an expression of a grammatical modality in perfective (sequential) or subjenctive (hypothetical) or realis (non-hypothetical) state--perceptual salient. In Korean, this form is called 사동.
 
A causative form, in linguistics, (a) is an expression of an agent causing or forcing a patient to perform an action or to be in a certain condition--salient cause, (b) is an expression of a patient involves in a non-volitional event that registers the changes of its state--salient effect, (c) is an expression of a grammatical modality in perfective (sequential) or subjenctive (hypothetical) or realis (non-hypothetical) state--perceptual salient. In Korean, this form is called 사동.
  
The Korean passive and causative conjugations pose a lot of confusing aspects and many Korean materials don't even teach this part properly. This grammar part may even be hard for some native Korean speakers. For example, 굽다 has two meanings and their conjugation forms are completely different.
+
The Korean passive and causative conjugations pose many confusing aspects, and most Korean materials don't even teach this part properly. This grammar part may even be hard for some native Korean speakers.  
*굽다 : bend
+
For example, 굽다 has two meanings and their conjugational forms are completely different.
*굽어지다 : to become (naturally) bent : (-어지다 is always passive. In this case, 굽다 follows the regular conjugation rule)
+
*굽다1 : bend
 +
*굽어지다 : to (naturally) become bent : (-어지다 is always passive. in this case, 굽다 follows the regular conjugation rule)
 
*굽히다 : to make something become bent , to bend something : (this -히 is causative)
 
*굽히다 : to make something become bent , to bend something : (this -히 is causative)
*굽혀지다 : to become bent by someone : (causative + passive)
+
*굽혀지다 : to become bent by someone : (causative -히 + passive -어지다. try to pronounce 굽히어지다 fast then you get 굽혀지다.)
*굽다 : to bake
+
*굽다2 : to bake
*구워지다 : to be baked : (-어지다 is always passive. In this case, 굽다 follows the ㅂ irregular conjugation rule)
+
*구워지다 : to be baked : (-어지다 is always passive. in this case, 굽다 follows the [[ㅂ irregular verbs|ㅂ irregular conjugation rule]]. try to pronounce 구우어지다 fast then you get 구워지다.)
 +
※ The "pronounce fast and get something" rule is applied to all verbs except for the irregular 으 dropping verbs. You can see an irregular example of 잠그다 at the end of this page.
  
In the example above, -히 is a causative particle, but it can be either a passive particle in many other verbs.
+
In the example above, -히 is a causative suffix, but it can be either a passive suffix in many other verbs.
 
*먹다 : to eat
 
*먹다 : to eat
 
*먹히다 : to be eaten : (this -히 is passive)
 
*먹히다 : to be eaten : (this -히 is passive)
 +
*먹혀지다 : to be eaten : (passive -히 + passive -어지다. this is wrong as it is a double passive)
 
*먹이다 : to make/let someone eat , to feed : (this -이 is causative)
 
*먹이다 : to make/let someone eat , to feed : (this -이 is causative)
 +
*먹여지다 : to be fed : (causative -이 + passive -어지다. this is correct but hardly used.)
  
In some cases, passive and causative forms are identical.
+
In some cases, the passive and causative forms are morphologically identical.
 
*보다 : to see
 
*보다 : to see
*보이다 : to be seen : (this -이 is passive)
+
*보이다1 : to be seen : (this -이 is passive)
*보이다 : to make/let someone see , to show : (this -이 is causative. to avoid confusion, 보여주다 is used in most cases)
+
*보여지다1 : to be seen : (passive -이 + passive -어지다, this usage is wrong as it is a double passive)
*보여지다 : to be shown : (causative + passive)
+
*보이다2 : to make/let someone see , to show : (this -이 is causative. to avoid confusion, 보여주다 is used in most cases)
*보여지다 : to be seen : (passive + passive, this usage is wrong as it is double passive)
+
*보여지다2 : to be shown : (causative -이 + passive -어지다)
 +
 
 +
Many verbs have two possible passive forms but only one of them is preferred in most cases. (the less preferred one might even sound unnatural) Some verbs, however, the two passive forms are equally preferred, either one is fine.
 +
*믿다 : to believe
 +
*믿기다 : to be believed : (this -기 is passive)
 +
*믿어지다 : to be believed : (-어지다 is passive)
 +
*믿겨지다 : to be believed : (passive -기 + passive -어지다. this is wrong as it is a double passive)
 +
*믿게 하다 : to make/let someone believe something : (in this case, -게 하다 is the proper causative form)
  
 
There are some verbs that even most native Koreans fail to conjugate correctly.
 
There are some verbs that even most native Koreans fail to conjugate correctly.
 
*잊다 : to forget
 
*잊다 : to forget
*잊히다 : to be forgotten : (passive)
+
*잊히다 : to be forgotten : (passive -히)
*잊혀지다 : to be forgotten : (double passive using both -히 and -어지다. this is wrong)
+
*잊어지다 : to be forgotten : (passive -어지다, this form is correct but hardly used)
 +
*잊혀지다 : to be forgotten : (a double passive using both -히 and -어지다. this is wrong)
 
*잊게 하다 : to make/let someone forget something : (in this case, -게 하다 is the proper causative form)
 
*잊게 하다 : to make/let someone forget something : (in this case, -게 하다 is the proper causative form)
  
Some verbs don't allow the passive particles at all. These exceptional verbs need special passive forms.
+
Not to be confused with the normal causative+passive forms.
 +
*숨다 : to hide : (intransitive)
 +
*숨기다 : to make/let something become hidden, to hide something : (causative -기)
 +
*숨겨지다 : to become hidden by someone : (causative -기 + passive -어지다)
 +
*남다 : to remain : (intransitive)
 +
*남기다 : to make/let something remain, to leave something : (causative -기. not to be confused with 떠나다, which means "to depart, to leave")
 +
*남겨지다 : to be left : (causative -기 + passive -어지다)
 +
*알다 : to know
 +
*알리다 : to make/let someone know, to inform : (causative -리)
 +
*알려지다 : to be informed, to become known : (causative -리 + passive -어지다)
 +
 
 +
Some verbs don't allow the passive suffixes at all. These exceptional verbs need special passive forms.
 
*죽다 : to die
 
*죽다 : to die
*죽이다 : to make/let someone die , to kill : (causative)
+
*죽이다 : to make/let someone die , to kill : (causative -이)
*죽임을 당하다 : to be killed : (passive)
+
*죽임을 당하다 : to be killed : (causative -이 + nominalization -ㅁ + passive -을 당하다)
*살해당하다 : to be killed : (alternative passive in Sino Korean)
+
*사망(死亡)하다 : to die : (Sino Korean equivalent)
*살해되다 : to be killed : (alternative passive in Sino Korean)
+
*살해(殺害)하다 : to kill : (Sino Korean equivalent)
 +
*살해(殺害)당하다 : to be killed : (Sino Korean equivalent)
 +
*살해(殺害)되다 : to be killed : (Sino Korean equivalent)
 +
*피살(被殺)되다 : to be killed : (Sino Korean equivalent)
 +
 
 +
묻다 has three meanings and each of them has different conjugational forms.
 +
*묻다1 : to bury : (this verb follows the regular conjugation rule)
 +
*묻히다1 : to be buried : (this -히 is passive)
 +
*묻어지다 : to be buried : (passive -어지다. this form is not much used)
 +
*묻혀지다1 : to be buried : (passive -히 + passive -어지다, this usage is wrong as it is a double passive)
 +
*묻게 하다 : to make/let someone bury something : (causative form with -게 하다)
 +
*묻다2 : to be smeared : (this verb follows the regular conjugation rule)
 +
*묻히다2 : to make/let something become smeared, to smear : (this -히 is causative. note that the previous 묻히다1 is passive)
 +
*묻혀지다2 : to become smeared with something by someone : (causative -히 + passive -어지다)
 +
*묻다3 : to ask : (this verb does not have a passive form. theoretically, it should be 물어지다 in the passive form but this is not used. instead, 물음을 받다 would work as the passive form. 물음 is a noun form of 묻다(to ask), as the object suffix -을/-를 is only attached to nouns. however, 물음을 받다 sounds kind of uncommon. the most frequently used passive form for this verb would be 질문(質問)을 받다, the Sino Korean alternative. this 묻다3 verb follows the [[ㄷ irregular verbs|ㄷ irregular conjugation rule]].)
 +
*물어보게 하다 : to make/let someone ask something : (causative form with -게 하다. theoretically, it should be 묻게 하다 but this can be misunderstood as the 묻다1 verb.)
 +
 
 +
Adjectives can also become passive and causative verbs.
 +
*낮다 : be(is) low
 +
*낮아지다 : to become low : (passive -아지다)
 +
*낮추다 : to make/let something become low , to lower : (this -추 is causative)
 +
*낮춰지다 : to become lowered by someone : (causative -추 + passive -어지다)
 +
*높다 : be(is) high
 +
*높아지다 : to become high : (passive -아지다)
 +
*높이다 : to make/let something become high : (this -이 is causative)
 +
*높여지다 : passive form of 높이다 : (causative -이 + passive -어지다) <br>
 +
※If you don't know why the passive ending -어지다 is changed to -아지다 in this case, see [[Vowel harmony]].
 +
 
 +
Some causative forms with the -우 suffix are inflected with the vowel ㅣ.
 +
*자다 : to sleep
 +
*재우다 : to make/let someone sleep : (자 + ㅣ + 우 + 다)
 +
*재워지다 : passive form of 재우다 : (causative -우 + passive -어지다)
 +
*서다 : to stand
 +
*세우다 : to make/let something stand : (서 + ㅣ + 우 + 다)
 +
*세워지다 : passive form of 세우다 : (causative -우 + passive -어지다)
 +
 
 +
 
 +
When verbs have a -하다 (to do) ending, the conjugations are different from the rules above. Most Hanja words (Chinese loanwords) belong to this part.
 +
When the 하다 verbs have a monosyllabic stem, they tend to take the -어/-아지다 ending. <br>
 +
Note that the 하다 verb itself is irregular. <br>
 +
[하다 + -어/-아지다 → 하여지다 → 해지다]
 +
*칠하다 : to paint
 +
*칠해지다 (칠하여지다) : to be painted
 +
*정하다 : to decide
 +
*정해지다 (정하여지다) : to be decided
 +
Note that there are many exceptions, this is not an established principle. For example, 변하다 (to change, intransitive) already works like a passive form without any conjugation. If you use 변해지다 which is wrong, the Koreans would instantly notice that you are not a native speaker. The native Korean counterpart for "to change", 바꾸다 has a normal passive form 바뀌다. In short,
 +
*변하다 : (not used as the active form)
 +
*변하다 : to be changed (passive / intransitive)
 +
*바꾸다 : to change (active)
 +
*바뀌다 : to be changed (passive)
 +
바뀌다 and 변하다 are interchangeable because they both work as the passive form. For example,
 +
*My mind was changed = 내 마음이 바뀌었다 = 내 마음이 변했다 : 내 마음(my mind) is the subject of the sentence
 +
바꾸다(active) can't be replaced with 변하다(passive).
 +
*[I] Changed my mind = 내 마음을 바꾸었다(바꿨다) : 내 마음(my mind) is the object of the sentence
 +
 
 +
When the 하다 verbs have a polysyllabic stem, they don't add the -어/-아지다 ending. Instead, the 하다 ending is changed to 되다 or 당하다 or 받다. (you should memorize what to use. most verbs allow one or two ways out of the three)
 +
*결정하다 : to decide
 +
*결정되다 : to be decided (Note : 결정하다 is a synonym of 정하다 above, the only difference is the 결, but they are different in the passive form)
 +
*구타하다 : to beat up
 +
*구타당하다 : to be beaten up (당하다 means "to suffer")
 +
*지원하다 : to support
 +
*지원받다 : to be supported (받다 means "to receive")
 +
 
 +
The causative form of 하다 is 시키다.
 +
*실행하다 : to carry out
 +
*실행시키다 : to make someone to carry out something
 +
*실행하게 하다 : to make someone to carry out something
 +
(Note : many 하다 verbs don't allow the 시키다 causative form. 하게 하다 can be applied universally)
 +
 
 +
Note that Korean adjectives can have the 하다 ending too, but the 하다 in adjectives is a different thing and doesn't mean "to do". The conjugation rules are also entirely different. They take the -어/-아지다 and -게 되다 forms. The 시키다 causative form is not used. This poses another difficulty because the 하다 verbs and adjectives look the same, so you can't determine if they are verbs or adjectives unless you look up a dictionary. You should first figure out if they are verbs or adjectives, then you can apply the correct conjugation rule.
 +
*깨끗하다 : be(is) clean (adjective)
 +
*깨끗해지다 : to become clean (verb)
 +
*깨끗하게 되다 : to become clean (verb)
 +
*깨끗하게 하다 : to make/let something be(is) clean (-게 하다 causative)
 +
*깨끗해지게 하다 : to make/let something become clean (-게 하다 causative)
 +
(Note : adjectives don't count if the stem is monosyllabic or polysyllabic. the passive form is always "하다 → 해지다" and "하다 → 하게 되다")
 +
 
 +
Note that 하게 하다 and 하게 되다 are different. 하게 하다 is a causative form for verbs and adjectives, 하게 되다 is a passive form for adjectives. If verbs take 하게 되다, the meaning is slightly different. It's like "end up doing / get to do". Native Koreans are just naturally able to speak it without learning, just like the Americans can speak English without an effort. For those who are not natively speaking Korean, however, it may be extremely tricky at first.
 +
*결정하다 : to decide (verb)
 +
*결정되다 : to be decided (verb)
 +
*결정하게 하다 : to make/let someone to decide something : (the 시키다 causative form is not used for this verb)
 +
*결정되게 하다 : to make/let something to be decided : (-게 하다 causative)
 +
*결정하게 되다 : to end up deciding something , to get to decide something
 +
*결정되게 되다 : to end up being decided (technically this is correct, but probably not used because 되다 is overlapped. however, other non-되다 passive verbs can be used this way. for example, [정해지게 되다 : to end up being decided] , [구타당하게 되다 : to end up being beaten up] , [먹히게 되다 : to end up being eaten])
 +
*결정해지다 (X) : (if you don't understand why this is wrong, read the explanation again.)
 +
*익숙하다 : be(is) accustomed (adjective)
 +
*익숙하게 되다 : to become accustomed (verb)
 +
*익숙해지다 : to become accustomed (verb)
 +
*익숙해지게 하다 : to make/let someone to become accustomed (verb) : (-게 하다 causative)
 +
*익숙되다, 익숙당하다, 익숙받다 (X) : (if you don't understand why this is wrong, read the explanation again.)
  
In short, every verb has their own arbitrary conjugation rules without regular logics. That's why most Korean materials for foreigners skip or overlook this grammar part. Each form of every verb should be memorized.
 
  
 +
In short, the conjugation rules for the passive and causative forms follow some patterns, but vary with individual verbs. (most passive verbs take one of -이, -히, -리, -기 or -어/-아지다 or -되다 or -당하다 or -받다. most causative verbs take one of -이, -히, -리, -기, -우 ,-구, -추 or -시키다 or -게 하다). The four suffixes -이, -히, -리, -기 are particularly tricky as they could be either passive or causative (or sometimes both). If you come across a Korean word you don't know, with one of the four suffixes, you can't really determine whether it is passive or causative unless you look up a Korean dictionary, because those four suffixes arbitrarily work with individual verbs. (say, if you come across an English word you don't know, with "-ed" ending, you can soon figure out that it is a past tense suffix for a verb, but you can't determine the function of the four Korean suffixes without a Korean dictionary) Besides, when they have the -하다 ending, you have to figure out if they are verbs or adjectives, because verbs and adjectives follow different rules despite looking exactly the same things. That's why most Korean materials for foreigners overlook or skip this grammar part. They (those who created the Korean materials for foreigners) often say "Passive form is not much used  in Korean" or "Passive form is not as common as it is in English". The first argument is wrong. Passive form is very common in Korean in fact. The latter argument might be true in many cases but doubtful if the claim is based on any valid statistics. As previously shown, many active voice English expressions should be translated to the passive form in Korean, but it is often ignored. It seems like many Koreans aren't even aware that they are actually speaking in the passive forms. I have never seen someone explaining 믿기지 않다 or 믿어지지 않다 or 믿겨지지 않다 as the passive form. Most people just explain it as "can't believe". That's how you end up thinking the passive form is not common in Korean without understanding the underlying grammar structure. Depending on the situation, the passive form in Korean could be even more common than the passive voice in English. This grammar part is very confusing even for native Korean speakers. Many Koreans are still using double passive words like 잊혀지다, because they misunderstood the -히 suffix as causative. (Try to imagine a word like "forgottened" which has an extra "-ed" suffix. That's what's called the double passive in Korean. In English, somehow the past participles are used for the passive voice but in Korean, past tense has nothing to do with the passive form. They are morphologically completely different.) I think they (those who created the Korean materials for foreigners) are just avoiding some nettlesome parts. Who would want to make their customers freaked out? In practice, each form of every verb should be memorized.
  
 +
 
==Forming causatives ==
 
==Forming causatives ==
 
Explaining the form with subject marker, object marker, etc.
 
Explaining the form with subject marker, object marker, etc.
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| 놀다
 
| 놀다
 
| 놀리다
 
| 놀리다
|
 
|-
 
| 걸다 (to hang)
 
| 걸리다
 
 
|  
 
|  
 
|}
 
|}

Latest revision as of 05:58, 7 December 2019

Construction.png


A causative form, in linguistics, (a) is an expression of an agent causing or forcing a patient to perform an action or to be in a certain condition--salient cause, (b) is an expression of a patient involves in a non-volitional event that registers the changes of its state--salient effect, (c) is an expression of a grammatical modality in perfective (sequential) or subjenctive (hypothetical) or realis (non-hypothetical) state--perceptual salient. In Korean, this form is called 사동.

The Korean passive and causative conjugations pose many confusing aspects, and most Korean materials don't even teach this part properly. This grammar part may even be hard for some native Korean speakers. For example, 굽다 has two meanings and their conjugational forms are completely different.

  • 굽다1 : bend
  • 굽어지다 : to (naturally) become bent : (-어지다 is always passive. in this case, 굽다 follows the regular conjugation rule)
  • 굽히다 : to make something become bent , to bend something : (this -히 is causative)
  • 굽혀지다 : to become bent by someone : (causative -히 + passive -어지다. try to pronounce 굽히어지다 fast then you get 굽혀지다.)
  • 굽다2 : to bake
  • 구워지다 : to be baked : (-어지다 is always passive. in this case, 굽다 follows the ㅂ irregular conjugation rule. try to pronounce 구우어지다 fast then you get 구워지다.)

※ The "pronounce fast and get something" rule is applied to all verbs except for the irregular 으 dropping verbs. You can see an irregular example of 잠그다 at the end of this page.

In the example above, -히 is a causative suffix, but it can be either a passive suffix in many other verbs.

  • 먹다 : to eat
  • 먹히다 : to be eaten : (this -히 is passive)
  • 먹혀지다 : to be eaten : (passive -히 + passive -어지다. this is wrong as it is a double passive)
  • 먹이다 : to make/let someone eat , to feed : (this -이 is causative)
  • 먹여지다 : to be fed : (causative -이 + passive -어지다. this is correct but hardly used.)

In some cases, the passive and causative forms are morphologically identical.

  • 보다 : to see
  • 보이다1 : to be seen : (this -이 is passive)
  • 보여지다1 : to be seen : (passive -이 + passive -어지다, this usage is wrong as it is a double passive)
  • 보이다2 : to make/let someone see , to show : (this -이 is causative. to avoid confusion, 보여주다 is used in most cases)
  • 보여지다2 : to be shown : (causative -이 + passive -어지다)

Many verbs have two possible passive forms but only one of them is preferred in most cases. (the less preferred one might even sound unnatural) Some verbs, however, the two passive forms are equally preferred, either one is fine.

  • 믿다 : to believe
  • 믿기다 : to be believed : (this -기 is passive)
  • 믿어지다 : to be believed : (-어지다 is passive)
  • 믿겨지다 : to be believed : (passive -기 + passive -어지다. this is wrong as it is a double passive)
  • 믿게 하다 : to make/let someone believe something : (in this case, -게 하다 is the proper causative form)

There are some verbs that even most native Koreans fail to conjugate correctly.

  • 잊다 : to forget
  • 잊히다 : to be forgotten : (passive -히)
  • 잊어지다 : to be forgotten : (passive -어지다, this form is correct but hardly used)
  • 잊혀지다 : to be forgotten : (a double passive using both -히 and -어지다. this is wrong)
  • 잊게 하다 : to make/let someone forget something : (in this case, -게 하다 is the proper causative form)

Not to be confused with the normal causative+passive forms.

  • 숨다 : to hide : (intransitive)
  • 숨기다 : to make/let something become hidden, to hide something : (causative -기)
  • 숨겨지다 : to become hidden by someone : (causative -기 + passive -어지다)
  • 남다 : to remain : (intransitive)
  • 남기다 : to make/let something remain, to leave something : (causative -기. not to be confused with 떠나다, which means "to depart, to leave")
  • 남겨지다 : to be left : (causative -기 + passive -어지다)
  • 알다 : to know
  • 알리다 : to make/let someone know, to inform : (causative -리)
  • 알려지다 : to be informed, to become known : (causative -리 + passive -어지다)

Some verbs don't allow the passive suffixes at all. These exceptional verbs need special passive forms.

  • 죽다 : to die
  • 죽이다 : to make/let someone die , to kill : (causative -이)
  • 죽임을 당하다 : to be killed : (causative -이 + nominalization -ㅁ + passive -을 당하다)
  • 사망(死亡)하다 : to die : (Sino Korean equivalent)
  • 살해(殺害)하다 : to kill : (Sino Korean equivalent)
  • 살해(殺害)당하다 : to be killed : (Sino Korean equivalent)
  • 살해(殺害)되다 : to be killed : (Sino Korean equivalent)
  • 피살(被殺)되다 : to be killed : (Sino Korean equivalent)

묻다 has three meanings and each of them has different conjugational forms.

  • 묻다1 : to bury : (this verb follows the regular conjugation rule)
  • 묻히다1 : to be buried : (this -히 is passive)
  • 묻어지다 : to be buried : (passive -어지다. this form is not much used)
  • 묻혀지다1 : to be buried : (passive -히 + passive -어지다, this usage is wrong as it is a double passive)
  • 묻게 하다 : to make/let someone bury something : (causative form with -게 하다)
  • 묻다2 : to be smeared : (this verb follows the regular conjugation rule)
  • 묻히다2 : to make/let something become smeared, to smear : (this -히 is causative. note that the previous 묻히다1 is passive)
  • 묻혀지다2 : to become smeared with something by someone : (causative -히 + passive -어지다)
  • 묻다3 : to ask : (this verb does not have a passive form. theoretically, it should be 물어지다 in the passive form but this is not used. instead, 물음을 받다 would work as the passive form. 물음 is a noun form of 묻다(to ask), as the object suffix -을/-를 is only attached to nouns. however, 물음을 받다 sounds kind of uncommon. the most frequently used passive form for this verb would be 질문(質問)을 받다, the Sino Korean alternative. this 묻다3 verb follows the ㄷ irregular conjugation rule.)
  • 물어보게 하다 : to make/let someone ask something : (causative form with -게 하다. theoretically, it should be 묻게 하다 but this can be misunderstood as the 묻다1 verb.)

Adjectives can also become passive and causative verbs.

  • 낮다 : be(is) low
  • 낮아지다 : to become low : (passive -아지다)
  • 낮추다 : to make/let something become low , to lower : (this -추 is causative)
  • 낮춰지다 : to become lowered by someone : (causative -추 + passive -어지다)
  • 높다 : be(is) high
  • 높아지다 : to become high : (passive -아지다)
  • 높이다 : to make/let something become high : (this -이 is causative)
  • 높여지다 : passive form of 높이다 : (causative -이 + passive -어지다)

※If you don't know why the passive ending -어지다 is changed to -아지다 in this case, see Vowel harmony.

Some causative forms with the -우 suffix are inflected with the vowel ㅣ.

  • 자다 : to sleep
  • 재우다 : to make/let someone sleep : (자 + ㅣ + 우 + 다)
  • 재워지다 : passive form of 재우다 : (causative -우 + passive -어지다)
  • 서다 : to stand
  • 세우다 : to make/let something stand : (서 + ㅣ + 우 + 다)
  • 세워지다 : passive form of 세우다 : (causative -우 + passive -어지다)


When verbs have a -하다 (to do) ending, the conjugations are different from the rules above. Most Hanja words (Chinese loanwords) belong to this part. When the 하다 verbs have a monosyllabic stem, they tend to take the -어/-아지다 ending.
Note that the 하다 verb itself is irregular.
[하다 + -어/-아지다 → 하여지다 → 해지다]

  • 칠하다 : to paint
  • 칠해지다 (칠하여지다) : to be painted
  • 정하다 : to decide
  • 정해지다 (정하여지다) : to be decided

Note that there are many exceptions, this is not an established principle. For example, 변하다 (to change, intransitive) already works like a passive form without any conjugation. If you use 변해지다 which is wrong, the Koreans would instantly notice that you are not a native speaker. The native Korean counterpart for "to change", 바꾸다 has a normal passive form 바뀌다. In short,

  • 변하다 : (not used as the active form)
  • 변하다 : to be changed (passive / intransitive)
  • 바꾸다 : to change (active)
  • 바뀌다 : to be changed (passive)

바뀌다 and 변하다 are interchangeable because they both work as the passive form. For example,

  • My mind was changed = 내 마음이 바뀌었다 = 내 마음이 변했다 : 내 마음(my mind) is the subject of the sentence

바꾸다(active) can't be replaced with 변하다(passive).

  • [I] Changed my mind = 내 마음을 바꾸었다(바꿨다) : 내 마음(my mind) is the object of the sentence

When the 하다 verbs have a polysyllabic stem, they don't add the -어/-아지다 ending. Instead, the 하다 ending is changed to 되다 or 당하다 or 받다. (you should memorize what to use. most verbs allow one or two ways out of the three)

  • 결정하다 : to decide
  • 결정되다 : to be decided (Note : 결정하다 is a synonym of 정하다 above, the only difference is the 결, but they are different in the passive form)
  • 구타하다 : to beat up
  • 구타당하다 : to be beaten up (당하다 means "to suffer")
  • 지원하다 : to support
  • 지원받다 : to be supported (받다 means "to receive")

The causative form of 하다 is 시키다.

  • 실행하다 : to carry out
  • 실행시키다 : to make someone to carry out something
  • 실행하게 하다 : to make someone to carry out something

(Note : many 하다 verbs don't allow the 시키다 causative form. 하게 하다 can be applied universally)

Note that Korean adjectives can have the 하다 ending too, but the 하다 in adjectives is a different thing and doesn't mean "to do". The conjugation rules are also entirely different. They take the -어/-아지다 and -게 되다 forms. The 시키다 causative form is not used. This poses another difficulty because the 하다 verbs and adjectives look the same, so you can't determine if they are verbs or adjectives unless you look up a dictionary. You should first figure out if they are verbs or adjectives, then you can apply the correct conjugation rule.

  • 깨끗하다 : be(is) clean (adjective)
  • 깨끗해지다 : to become clean (verb)
  • 깨끗하게 되다 : to become clean (verb)
  • 깨끗하게 하다 : to make/let something be(is) clean (-게 하다 causative)
  • 깨끗해지게 하다 : to make/let something become clean (-게 하다 causative)

(Note : adjectives don't count if the stem is monosyllabic or polysyllabic. the passive form is always "하다 → 해지다" and "하다 → 하게 되다")

Note that 하게 하다 and 하게 되다 are different. 하게 하다 is a causative form for verbs and adjectives, 하게 되다 is a passive form for adjectives. If verbs take 하게 되다, the meaning is slightly different. It's like "end up doing / get to do". Native Koreans are just naturally able to speak it without learning, just like the Americans can speak English without an effort. For those who are not natively speaking Korean, however, it may be extremely tricky at first.

  • 결정하다 : to decide (verb)
  • 결정되다 : to be decided (verb)
  • 결정하게 하다 : to make/let someone to decide something : (the 시키다 causative form is not used for this verb)
  • 결정되게 하다 : to make/let something to be decided : (-게 하다 causative)
  • 결정하게 되다 : to end up deciding something , to get to decide something
  • 결정되게 되다 : to end up being decided (technically this is correct, but probably not used because 되다 is overlapped. however, other non-되다 passive verbs can be used this way. for example, [정해지게 되다 : to end up being decided] , [구타당하게 되다 : to end up being beaten up] , [먹히게 되다 : to end up being eaten])
  • 결정해지다 (X) : (if you don't understand why this is wrong, read the explanation again.)
  • 익숙하다 : be(is) accustomed (adjective)
  • 익숙하게 되다 : to become accustomed (verb)
  • 익숙해지다 : to become accustomed (verb)
  • 익숙해지게 하다 : to make/let someone to become accustomed (verb) : (-게 하다 causative)
  • 익숙되다, 익숙당하다, 익숙받다 (X) : (if you don't understand why this is wrong, read the explanation again.)


In short, the conjugation rules for the passive and causative forms follow some patterns, but vary with individual verbs. (most passive verbs take one of -이, -히, -리, -기 or -어/-아지다 or -되다 or -당하다 or -받다. most causative verbs take one of -이, -히, -리, -기, -우 ,-구, -추 or -시키다 or -게 하다). The four suffixes -이, -히, -리, -기 are particularly tricky as they could be either passive or causative (or sometimes both). If you come across a Korean word you don't know, with one of the four suffixes, you can't really determine whether it is passive or causative unless you look up a Korean dictionary, because those four suffixes arbitrarily work with individual verbs. (say, if you come across an English word you don't know, with "-ed" ending, you can soon figure out that it is a past tense suffix for a verb, but you can't determine the function of the four Korean suffixes without a Korean dictionary) Besides, when they have the -하다 ending, you have to figure out if they are verbs or adjectives, because verbs and adjectives follow different rules despite looking exactly the same things. That's why most Korean materials for foreigners overlook or skip this grammar part. They (those who created the Korean materials for foreigners) often say "Passive form is not much used in Korean" or "Passive form is not as common as it is in English". The first argument is wrong. Passive form is very common in Korean in fact. The latter argument might be true in many cases but doubtful if the claim is based on any valid statistics. As previously shown, many active voice English expressions should be translated to the passive form in Korean, but it is often ignored. It seems like many Koreans aren't even aware that they are actually speaking in the passive forms. I have never seen someone explaining 믿기지 않다 or 믿어지지 않다 or 믿겨지지 않다 as the passive form. Most people just explain it as "can't believe". That's how you end up thinking the passive form is not common in Korean without understanding the underlying grammar structure. Depending on the situation, the passive form in Korean could be even more common than the passive voice in English. This grammar part is very confusing even for native Korean speakers. Many Koreans are still using double passive words like 잊혀지다, because they misunderstood the -히 suffix as causative. (Try to imagine a word like "forgottened" which has an extra "-ed" suffix. That's what's called the double passive in Korean. In English, somehow the past participles are used for the passive voice but in Korean, past tense has nothing to do with the passive form. They are morphologically completely different.) I think they (those who created the Korean materials for foreigners) are just avoiding some nettlesome parts. Who would want to make their customers freaked out? In practice, each form of every verb should be memorized.


Forming causatives

Explaining the form with subject marker, object marker, etc.

이 Causative verb
Active verb Causative verb Examples
먹다 (to eat) 먹이다 (to make/let someone eat , to feed)

Active- 나는 김치를 먹는다.(I eat Kimchi)

Causative- 나는 강아지에게 물을 먹인다.(I make my dog drink water)

죽다 (to die) 죽이다 (to make/let someone die , to kill)

Active- 지진 때문에 많은 사람이 죽었다. (Many people died from the earthquake.)

Causative- 그는 사람을 죽였다. (He killed a person.)

붙다 (to stick to) 붙이다 (to make/let something stick to)

Active- 나는 벽에 붙는다. (I stick to the wall.)

Causative- 나는 사진을 벽에 붙인다. (I make a picture stick to the wall.)

끓다 (to boil) 끓이다 (to make/let something boil)

Active- 물은 100℃ 이상에서 끓는다. (Water boils in the temperature of 100℃ and over.)

Causative- 나는 김치찌개를 끓인다. (I make the Kimchi-jjigae boil. / I boil the Kimchi-jjigae.)

보다 (to see, to look, to watch) 보이다 (to make/let someone see , to show)

Active- 나는 영화를 보았다. (I saw a movie.)

Causative- 학생이 내게 사진을 보였다. (A student showed me a photograph.)

속다 (to be fooled, to be deceived) 속이다 (to make/let someone be fooled)

Active- 또다시 일기예보에게 속았다. (I am fooled by the weather forecast again.)

Causative- 절대로 사람을 속이지 마라. (Never deceive a person.)


히 Causative verb
Active verb Causative verb Examples
익다 익히다
읽다 (to read) 읽히다
입다 (to wear) 입히다
앉다 (to sit) 앉히다
눕다 눕히다
맞다 맞히다


리 Causative verb
Active verb Causative verb Examples
알다 알리다
울다 울리다
돌다 돌리다
살다 살리다
놀다 놀리다


기 Causative verb
Active verb Causative verb Examples
벗다 벗기다
신다 신기다
웃다 웃기다
맡다 맡기다
감다 감기다
씻다 씻기다


우 Causative verb
Active verb Causative verb Examples
깨다 깨우다
서다 세우다
쓰다 씌우다
자다 재우다
타다 태우다


구 Causative verb
Active verb Causative verb Examples
돋다 돋구다
일다 일구다
달다 달구다
솟다 솟구다


추 Causative verb
Active verb Causative verb Examples
낮다 낮추다
늦다 늦추다
맞다 맞추다
곧다 곧추다

Creating causative form

The causative form can also be created using: See V + 게 하다

See also