Difference between revisions of "받침"

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The 받침 is the final consonant (or consonant cluster) at the end of a Korean syllable. The 받침 is written in the bottom/final  position. Conjugation rules will often depend on if there is a 받침 or not. The consonant in the 받침 position is said to be in the "final position."  
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The 받침 is the final consonant (or consonant cluster) at the end of a Korean syllable. The 받침 is written in the bottom/final  position. Conjugation rules will often depend on if there is a 받침 or not. The consonant in the 받침 position is said to be in the "final position."
  
 
The sound of the [[자모|jamo]] may also differ from its original sound if not followed by a vowel.
 
The sound of the [[자모|jamo]] may also differ from its original sound if not followed by a vowel.
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==Significance==
 
==Significance==
The 받침 is important for grammar conjugation. Many grammar pattern's conjugation method depends on whether it has a 받침 or not, for example the [[subject markers]] 가(if there's no 받침) and 이(if there is a 받침).  
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The 받침 is important for grammar conjugation. Many grammar pattern's conjugation method depends on whether it has a 받침 or not, for example the [[subject markers]] 가(if there's no 받침) and 이(if there is a 받침).
  
 
<!--Insert table-->
 
<!--Insert table-->
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|+Pronunciation for Consonants in 받침 Position When Not Followed By a Vowel
 
|+Pronunciation for Consonants in 받침 Position When Not Followed By a Vowel
 
|-
 
|-
! Letter(s) !! Pronunciation !! Comment !! Examples !! Audio  
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! Letter(s) !! Pronunciation !! Comment !! Examples !! Audio
 
|-
 
|-
 
|ㄱ,ㄲ,ㅋ || /k/ || The /k/ sound is cut short.  ||먹다<br>부엌<br>깎다<br>
 
|ㄱ,ㄲ,ㅋ || /k/ || The /k/ sound is cut short.  ||먹다<br>부엌<br>깎다<br>
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|<flashmp3>mal J.mp3, mal C.mp3, sal J.mp3, sal C.mp3, kal J.mp3, kal C.mp3, jal J.mp3, jal C.mp3, palda J.mp3, palda C.mp3, meolda J.mp3, meolda C.mp3, alda J.mp3, alda C.mp3|leftbg=003478|rightbg=c60c30|lefticon=ffffff|righticon=ffffff</flashmp3>
 
|<flashmp3>mal J.mp3, mal C.mp3, sal J.mp3, sal C.mp3, kal J.mp3, kal C.mp3, jal J.mp3, jal C.mp3, palda J.mp3, palda C.mp3, meolda J.mp3, meolda C.mp3, alda J.mp3, alda C.mp3|leftbg=003478|rightbg=c60c30|lefticon=ffffff|righticon=ffffff</flashmp3>
 
|-
 
|-
| ㅇ || /ŋ/ sound || Normally ㅇ acts as a placeholder for a consonant and makes no sound, only in the final position does it make a sound.  
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| ㅇ || /ŋ/ sound || Normally ㅇ acts as a placeholder for a consonant and makes no sound, only in the final position does it make a sound.
 
|강<br>성<br>왕<br>콩<br>선생
 
|강<br>성<br>왕<br>콩<br>선생
 
|<flashmp3>gang J.mp3, gang C.mp3|leftbg=003478|rightbg=c60c30|lefticon=ffffff|righticon=ffffff</flashmp3>
 
|<flashmp3>gang J.mp3, gang C.mp3|leftbg=003478|rightbg=c60c30|lefticon=ffffff|righticon=ffffff</flashmp3>
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|}
 
|}
  
[[Category:Needs audio recording]] <!--Need someone to voice the sounds-->
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<!--Need someone to voice the sounds-->
  
 
==Consonant assimilation==
 
==Consonant assimilation==
 
When certain consonant sounds meet each other, there are consonant assimilation rules that modify the standard pronunciation. For a complete set of rules, see the [[:Category:Consonant_Assimilation|consonant assimilation]] section.
 
When certain consonant sounds meet each other, there are consonant assimilation rules that modify the standard pronunciation. For a complete set of rules, see the [[:Category:Consonant_Assimilation|consonant assimilation]] section.
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
|+Examples of Consonant assimilation Rules  
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|+Examples of Consonant assimilation Rules
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Word || Actual Pronunciation  || Consonant assimilation Rule
 
! Word || Actual Pronunciation  || Consonant assimilation Rule
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| 행복하다 (To be happy) || 행보카다 || [[ㄱ + ㅎ]] → ㅋ
 
| 행복하다 (To be happy) || 행보카다 || [[ㄱ + ㅎ]] → ㅋ
 
|-
 
|-
| 입학 (School admission)  || 이팍 || [[ㅂ + ㅎ]] → ㅍ  
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| 입학 (School admission)  || 이팍 || [[ㅂ + ㅎ]] → ㅍ
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 그렇지 (That's right) || 그러치 || [[ㅎ + ㅈ]] → ㅊ
 
| 그렇지 (That's right) || 그러치 || [[ㅎ + ㅈ]] → ㅊ
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| 없다 || 업따 || With the cluster ㅄ, ㅂ gets pronounced. Then ㅂ 받침 + ㅅ makes the ㄷ sound become  a ㄸ sound.
 
| 없다 || 업따 || With the cluster ㅄ, ㅂ gets pronounced. Then ㅂ 받침 + ㅅ makes the ㄷ sound become  a ㄸ sound.
 
|-
 
|-
| 젊다 || 점따 || With the cluster ㄻ, ㅁ gets pronounced. Then ㅁ 받침 + ㄷ makes the ㄷ sound become a ㄸ sound.  
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| 젊다 || 점따 || With the cluster ㄻ, ㅁ gets pronounced. Then ㅁ 받침 + ㄷ makes the ㄷ sound become a ㄸ sound.
 
|-
 
|-
| 굶다 || 굼따 || With the cluster ㄻ, ㅁ gets pronounced. Then ㅁ 받침 + ㄷ makes the ㄷ sound become a ㄸ sound.  
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| 굶다 || 굼따 || With the cluster ㄻ, ㅁ gets pronounced. Then ㅁ 받침 + ㄷ makes the ㄷ sound become a ㄸ sound.
 
|-
 
|-
| 짧다 || 짭따 || With the cluster ㄼ, ㅂ gets pronounced. Then ㅂ 받침 + ㄷ makes the ㄷ sound become  a ㄸ sound.
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| 짧다 || 짤따 || With the cluster ㄼ, ㅂ gets pronounced. Then ㅂ 받침 + ㄷ makes the ㄷ sound become  a ㄸ sound.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 앉다 || 안따 || With the cluster ㄵ, ㄴ gets pronounced. Then ㅈ 받침 + ㄷ makes the ㄷ sound become  a ㄸ sound.
 
| 앉다 || 안따 || With the cluster ㄵ, ㄴ gets pronounced. Then ㅈ 받침 + ㄷ makes the ㄷ sound become  a ㄸ sound.
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==Exceptions==
 
==Exceptions==
 
Words like 닭(chicken) when followed by the subject marker 이 and the object marker 을 would normally have the pronunciation "달기" and "달글" respectively if they followed the normal rules. However they get pronounced as "다기" and "다글" instead.
 
Words like 닭(chicken) when followed by the subject marker 이 and the object marker 을 would normally have the pronunciation "달기" and "달글" respectively if they followed the normal rules. However they get pronounced as "다기" and "다글" instead.
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 +
[[Category:Needs audio recording]]
 
[[Category:Basics|ㅂ]]
 
[[Category:Basics|ㅂ]]

Latest revision as of 05:43, 30 January 2012

The 받침 is the final consonant (or consonant cluster) at the end of a Korean syllable. The 받침 is written in the bottom/final position. Conjugation rules will often depend on if there is a 받침 or not. The consonant in the 받침 position is said to be in the "final position."

The sound of the jamo may also differ from its original sound if not followed by a vowel.

A sentence example where the 받침 is in red:
Badchim sentence.jpg

Significance

The 받침 is important for grammar conjugation. Many grammar pattern's conjugation method depends on whether it has a 받침 or not, for example the subject markers 가(if there's no 받침) and 이(if there is a 받침).

Pronunciation: Consonant followed by a vowel

If a consonant in the final position is followed by a vowel, the consonant sound shifts over to the syllable with the vowel. The only sounds that don't shift over to the next syllable are ㅇ since it is impossible to begin a syllable with an "ng" sound and ㅎ becomes silent when followed by a vowel. Also when ㅌ is in the final position and followed by the vowel 이, the sound becomes 치, see ㅌ + 이. Similarly when ㄷ is in the final position and followed by the vowel 이, the sound becomes 지. See ㄷ + 이.

Pronunciation When Followed By a Vowel
Original Actual Pronunciation Comment
맞아 마자 ㅈ sound shifts over to the next syllable
먹어 머거 ㄱ sound shifts over to the next syllable
집에 지베 ㅂ sound shifts over to the next syllable
좋아 조아 ㅎ sound goes silent if followed by a vowel
놀아 노라 ㄹ sound shifts over to the next syllable, becomes an /ɾ/ sound (flapped /r/) rather than an /l/ sound.
필요하다 피료하다 ㄹ sound shifts over to the next syllable, becomes an /ɾ/ sound rather than an /l/ sound.
영어 영어 The ㅇ 받침 sound does not shift over
한국어 한구거 ㄱ sound shifts over to the next syllable
같이 가치 ㅌ + 이 = 치. See ㅌ + 이
굳이 구지 ㄷ + 이 = 지. See ㄷ + 이
졸업 조럽 ㄹ sound shifts over to the next syllable, becomes an /ɾ/ sound rather than a /l/ sound.
십일 시빌 ㅂ sound shifts over to the next syllable
중앙 중앙 The ㅇ 받침 sound does not shift over

Pronunciation: Consonant not followed by a vowel

If a consonant is in the final position and it is not followed by a vowel (meaning it is the last syllable of the word or followed by another consonant), then it may have a different pronunciation. Notice from the table below that many characters share the same sound when in the 받침 position. Also note: ㅃ, ㄸ, and ㅉ can't appear in the final position.


Pronunciation for Consonants in 받침 Position When Not Followed By a Vowel
Letter(s) Pronunciation Comment Examples Audio
ㄱ,ㄲ,ㅋ /k/ The /k/ sound is cut short. 먹다
부엌
깎다
ㅂ,ㅍ /p/ The /p/ sound is cut short.
수업
춥다
높다
/l/ sound If ㄹ is followed by a vowel it is a /ɾ/ sound



팔다
멀다
알다
/ŋ/ sound Normally ㅇ acts as a placeholder for a consonant and makes no sound, only in the final position does it make a sound.



선생
ㄷ, ㅎ,ㅈ,ㅅ,ㅆ,ㅌ,ㅊ /t/ sound

찾다
있다
같다

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Consonant assimilation

When certain consonant sounds meet each other, there are consonant assimilation rules that modify the standard pronunciation. For a complete set of rules, see the consonant assimilation section.

Examples of Consonant assimilation Rules
Word Actual Pronunciation Consonant assimilation Rule
원래 (Originally) 월래 ㄴ + ㄹ → ㄹ, ㄹ
작년 (Last year) 장년 ㄱ + ㄴ → ㅇ, ㄴ
대학로 (An area in Seoul) 대항노 ㄱ + ㄹ → ㅇ, ㄴ
종로 (Jogno, an area in Seoul) 종노 ㅇ + ㄹ → ㅇ, ㄴ
열 하나 (Eleven) 여라나 ㄹ + ㅎ → ㄹ
행복하다 (To be happy) 행보카다 ㄱ + ㅎ → ㅋ
입학 (School admission) 이팍 ㅂ + ㅎ → ㅍ
그렇지 (That's right) 그러치 ㅎ + ㅈ → ㅊ
곧 할 거야 (I'll do it soon.) 고탈꺼야 ㄷ + ㅎ → ㅌ

Double 받침

It is possible to have two different consonants in the final syllable position (a consonant cluster). Note when we say double 받침 we are not refering to ㄲ, ㅆ. If the next syllable starts with a vowel, the sound in the second 받침 position will shift to the next syllable unless it is an ㅎ, in which case the sound is simply ignored. If the next syllable starts with a consonant, only one of the two 받침 consonants will be pronounced, but the second may assimilate with the following consonant.

Example
Pronunciation for double 받침 when followed by a vowel
Original Actual Pronunciation Comment
얽어 일거 The ㄱ in cluster ㄺ shifts over to the next syllable
없어 업서 The ㅅ in cluster ㅄ shifts over to the next syllable
앉아 안자 The ㅈ in cluster ㄵ shifts over to the next syllable
짧아 짤바 The ㄱ in cluster ㄺ shifts over to the next syllable
싫어 실어 → 시러 ㅎ goes silent when followed by a vowel, ㄹ sound shifts over
괜찮아 괜찬아 → 괜차나 ㅎ goes silent when followed by a vowel
많이 많이 → 마니 ㅎ goes silent when followed by a vowel
핥아 핥아 → 할타 The ㅌ in cluster ㄾ shifts over to the next syllable
굶어 굶어 → 굴머 The ㄹ in cluster ㄻ shifts over to the next syllable
읊어 읊어 → 을퍼 The ㅍ in cluster ㄿ shifts over to the next syllable

However if it is followed by a consonant in the next syllable over, there is no specific rule as to which sound to pronounce; you must memorize the words individually. The second consonant in the 받침 can also affect the next syllable if one of the consonant assimilation rules applies. See the picture example.

Pronunciation for double 받침 when followed by a vowel
Original Actual Pronunciation Comment
With the cluster ㄺ, ㄱ gets pronounced
읽다 익따 With the cluster ㄺ, ㄱ gets pronounced. Then ㄱ 받침 + ㄷ makes the ㄷ sound become a ㄸ sound.
많다 만타 The consonant assimilation rule ㅎ + ㄷ applies, making ㄷ sound become a ㅌ sound.
없다 업따 With the cluster ㅄ, ㅂ gets pronounced. Then ㅂ 받침 + ㅅ makes the ㄷ sound become a ㄸ sound.
젊다 점따 With the cluster ㄻ, ㅁ gets pronounced. Then ㅁ 받침 + ㄷ makes the ㄷ sound become a ㄸ sound.
굶다 굼따 With the cluster ㄻ, ㅁ gets pronounced. Then ㅁ 받침 + ㄷ makes the ㄷ sound become a ㄸ sound.
짧다 짤따 With the cluster ㄼ, ㅂ gets pronounced. Then ㅂ 받침 + ㄷ makes the ㄷ sound become a ㄸ sound.
앉다 안따 With the cluster ㄵ, ㄴ gets pronounced. Then ㅈ 받침 + ㄷ makes the ㄷ sound become a ㄸ sound.
With the cluster ㄳ, ㄱ gets pronounced
여덟 여덜 With the cluster ㄼ, ㄹ gets pronounced



Exceptions

Words like 닭(chicken) when followed by the subject marker 이 and the object marker 을 would normally have the pronunciation "달기" and "달글" respectively if they followed the normal rules. However they get pronounced as "다기" and "다글" instead.